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Flavorings are the ingredients that add distinction and character to baked goods.
CANDY / CITRUS OILS
SARAH SAYS: To use flavored candy / citrus oils in baking: if a recipe calls for 1 or 2 teaspoons lemon extract, you can use 1/8 to 1/4 teaspoon of lemon oil TOTAL, instead; do not double it. If the recipe calls for 2 teaspoons vanilla extract and 1 teaspoon orange extract, use 2 teaspoons vanilla extract and 1/8 to 1/4 teaspoon orange oil TOTAL. (Start with the smaller amount of 1/8 teaspoon. You can always add 1/8 teaspoon more, but do not go over 1/4 teaspoon total PER RECIPE because the flavors are intense!
I also use my candy oils for cooking. For example, I use a DROP of lemon oil to make lemon chicken or in mayonnaise or melted butter for dipping cooked artichoke leaves in. When mixing drinks, I often use a drop of lime oil instead of using fresh lime juice. The flavor you get from them is so wonderful!
CITRUS PEEL / ZEST
Lemon: One lemon yields approximately 1 tablespoon of zest.
Lime: A yield of a lime is hard to predict because the thickness of the skin varies so much. Key limes, because of their thin skins, do not zest well. Use a regular lime, instead.
Orange: One large orange yields approximately 2 tablespoons of zest.
Tangerine: 2 - 3 tablespoons tangerine zest obtained from 12 - 13 tangerines
INSTANT ESPRESSO POWDER Substitute 2 to 3 teaspoons instant coffee granules for 1 teaspoon instant espresso coffee powder.
SARAH SAYS: Not all liquid ingredients can be substituted with one type for another type in a baking recipe because of their different properties. For example, if a recipe calls for water and you use milk instead, milk has different properties and will affect your recipe. Same if you used lemon juice for water; lemon juice adds in a substantial amount of acids to the recipe, and the recipe won't be the same as the original.
Beef or Chicken Broth 1 cup = 1 cup boiling water and 1 teaspoon instant beef bouillon granules (or 1 bouillon cube)
Coffee 1 cup strong brewed coffee = 1 cup hot water and 2 teaspoons instant coffee granules or espresso powder
Dairy - Milk / Cream, etc
Orange Juice 1 cup = 3/4 cup water plus 1/4 cup frozen orange juice concentrate
SARAH SAYS: When baking yeast bread, do not decrease or increase the salt in the recipe. It's because too little or too much can affect the fermentation of the yeast.
1 teaspoon fine sea or table salt = roughly 1 1/4 teaspoons Morton's kosher salt = roughly 1 3/4 teaspoons Diamond Crystal kosher salt
In general, if you want to use kosher salt for table salt, multiply the table salt quantity by 1.5.
1 teaspoon table salt = 1 1/2 teaspoons kosher salt
1 1/2 teaspoon table salt = 2 1/4 teaspoons kosher salt
2 teaspoons table salt = 3 teaspoons kosher salt
If you want to use table salt for kosher salt, multiply the kosher salt quantity by 2/3
1 teaspoon kosher salt = 2/3 teaspoon table salt
1 1/2 teaspoon kosher salt = 1 teaspoon table salt
2 teaspoon kosher salt = 1 1/3 teaspoon table salt
1 vanilla bean (approximately 2-inches), halved and scraped, is equivalent to approximately 1 tablespoon pure vanilla extract; or,
1 rounded teaspoon of vanilla paste = 1 teaspoon vanilla extract.
1 teaspoon vanilla powder = 1 teaspoon vanilla extract
VINEGAR 1 teaspoon vinegar = 2 teaspoons lemon juice
LIQUEURS, SPIRITS AND WINE (ALCOHOL) add flavor to many foods. Some may not have the exact flavoring or cannot have alcohol, so the following are substitutes:
SARAH SAYS: Not all liquid flavoring ingredients can be substituted with one type for another type in a baking recipe because of their different properties. For example, if a recipe calls for 1/2 teaspoon almond extract, and you want to use a Amaretto instead, you'll need more liqueur (2 tablespoons) to accomplish flavor. This will add more liquid to the recipe, and may cause problems with it.
Amaretto - Non-Alcoholic almond extract. (Substitute 1/4 to 1/2 teaspoon almond extract for 2 tablespoons Amaretto.)
Anisette - Anise Italian soda syrup or fennel. Also use the herbs anise or fennel.
Beer - Chicken broth, beef broth, mushroom broth, white grape juice, ginger ale.
Bourbon - 1 1/2 to 2 teaspoons of non-alcoholic vanilla extract.
Brandy - Water, white grape juice, apple cider or apple juice, diluted peach or apricot syrups. (Substitute equal amounts of liquid.)
Champagne - Ginger ale, sparkling apple cider, sparkling cranberry juice, or sparkling white grape juice.
Coffee Liqueur - To replace 2 tablespoons of liqueur, use 1/2 to 1 teaspoon of chocolate extract mixed with 1 teaspoon of instant coffee, which has been mixed in 2 tablespoons of water. Can also substitute expresso, non-alcoholic coffee extract or coffee syrup.
Cognac - Juice from peaches, apricots, or pears.
Cointreau - Orange juice or frozen orange juice concentrate.
Creme de menthe - Spearmint extract or oil of spearmint diluted with a little water or grapefruit juice.
Grand Marnier or Orange-Flavored Liqueur - Unsweetened orange juice concentrate or orange juice. (Substitute 2 tablespoons unsweetened orange juice concentrate or 2 tablespoons orange juice and 1/2 teaspoon orange extract for 2 tablespoons Grand Marnier.)
Kahlua - Coffee or chocolate-flavored liqueur. (Substitute 1/2 to 1 teaspoon chocolate extract or substitute 1/2 to 1 teaspoon instant coffee in 2 tablespoons water for 2 tablespoons Kahlua.)
Kirsch - Syrup or juices from cherries, raspberries, boysenberries, currants, or cider. (Substitute equal amounts of liquid.)
Peppermint Schnapps - Non-alcoholic mint or peppermint extract, mint Italian soda syrup, or mint leaves.
Port Wine, Sweet Sherry, or Fruit-Flavored Liqueur) - Orange juice or apple juice. (Substitute equal amount of liquid.)
Rum (light or dark) - Water, white grape juice, pineapple juice, apple juice or apple cider, or syrup flavored with almond extract. (Substitute equal amounts of liquid.)
Sake - Rice vinegar.
Sherry or Bourbon - Orange or pineapple juices, peach syrup, or non-alcoholic vanilla extract. (Substitute equal amount of liquid 1 to 2 teaspoons vanilla extract.)
Southern Comfort - Peach flavored nectar combined with a small amount of cider vinegar.
Tequila - Cactus juice or nectar.
Triple Sec - Orange juice concentrate, orange juice, orange zest or orange marmalade.
Vermouth, Dry - White grape juice, white wine vinegar, or non-alcoholic white wine.
Vermouth, Sweet - Apple juice, grape juice, balsamic vinegar, non-alcoholic sweet wine, or water with lemon juice.
Whiskey - If a small amount is called for, it can be eliminated.
Vodka - White grape juice or apple cider combined with lime juice or use plain water in place of the vodka.
Gewurztraminer - White grape juice combined with lemon juice.
Grappa - Grape juice.
Port Wine - Concord grape juice with some lime zest added, cranberry juice with some lemon juice added, or grape juice concentrate. Substitute orange juice or apple juice for lighter ports
Red Wine - Red grape juice, cranberry juice, chicken broth, beef broth, vegetable broth, clam juice, fruit juices, flavored vinegar. (Substitute equal amount of liquid.)
White Wine - Water, chicken broth, vegetable broth, white grape juice, ginger ale, white grape juice.
Sweet White Wine - White grape juice plus 1 tablespoons white corn syrup. (Substitute equal amount of liquid.)