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Food thickeners frequently are based on either Polysaccharides (starches, vegetable gums, and pectin), or proteins.
Different thickeners may be more or less suitable in a given application, due to differences in taste, clarity, and their responses to chemical and physical conditions. For example, for acidic foods, arrowroot is a better choice than cornstarch, which loses thickening potency in acidic mixtures. At (acidic) pH levels below 4.5, guar gum has sharply reduced aqueous solubility, thus also reducing its thickening capability. If the food is to be frozen, tapioca or arrowroot are preferable over cornstarch, which can cause the mixture to thin when frozen.
Knox: One envelope of granulated gelatin = 1/4 ounce = 7 grams = 2 1/2 teaspoons; Bloom Strength = 225
Platinum, 1 sheet = bloom strength 235 - 265
Gold, 1 sheet (2g) = bloom strength 200 (190 - 220)
Silver, 1 sheet (2.4 - 2.5g) = bloom strength 160
Bronze, 1 sheet (3g) = bloom strength 125 - 155
1 gram of Knox = 1.9g of silver = 1.06g of gold
1 gram of silver = .84g of Knox = .89g of gold
1 gram of gold = .94g of Knox = 1.02g of silver