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Sugar, also known as a sweetener, is a carbohydrate created naturally in fruits and vegetables, or by honey bees. Sweetening and flavor are its obvious functions, but it also plays a number of roles in baking.
If you want to substitute one sugar for another, the rule of thumb is to use dry sugar for dry sugar and liquid sugar for liquid sugar. You can't exchange a dry one for a liquid one and vice versa without wreaking havoc, even if a random substitution chart shows you otherwise. Also, each dry or liquid sugar has its own attribute, so when you substitute it, expect changes in the outcome.
1 cup light brown sugar, packed = 1 cup dark brown sugar, packed = 1 cup granulated white sugar; or,
1 cup granulated sugar + 1/4 cup light molasses
1 cup dark brown sugar, packed = 1 cup light brown sugar, packed = 1 cup granulated white sugar; or,
1 cup granulated sugar plus 1/2 cup light molasses or 1/4 cup dark molasses
9 tablespoons corn syrup = 9 tablespoons golden syrup = 8 tablespoons glucose syrup
GRANULATED WHITE SUGAR
1/2 cup = 1/4 cup liquid caramel. If hardened and pulverized, returns to its original volume of 1/2 cup.
POWDERED (CONFECTIONERS') SUGAR
1 cup = 1 cup granulated sugar plus 1 tablespoon cornstarch; pulse in a food processor fitted with the metal blade attachment until it's well blended and powdery.
NOTE: This will scratch the bowl of your food processor
1 pound unsifted powdered sugar = about 4 cups
1 3/4 cup powdered sugar (contains roughly 3% cornstarch yielding an increased thickness) = 1 cup granulated sugar