Leaveners

Copyright © 2000 Sarah Phillips Sarah Phillips, Inc. All rights reserved.
Baked goods, leavened with baking soda, baking powder and the like are known as chemical leaveners (as opposed to yeast, a natural leavener). Their siblings are baker's ammonia and cream of tartar. There are some substitutions possible, but proceed with caution.

BAKING POWDER Rule of Thumb: 1 teaspoon for every 1 cup flour
There is no substitution for DOUBLE-ACTING BAKING POWDER. You can substitute with SINGLE-ACTING. Single-acting means that it will create gas quickly when moistened, so the batter must be cooked quickly or it will go flat. 

SINGLE-ACTING baking powder: 1 teaspoon = 1/4 teaspoon baking soda plus 1/2 teaspoon cream of tartar plus 1/4 teaspoon cornstarch

SINGLE-ACTING Corn-free: For 1-2/3s cup, blend: 1/3 cup baking soda + 2/3 cup cream of tartar + 2/3 cup arrowroot starch. Thoroughly blend all ingredients together, and store in airtight container. Use in recipes to replace standard baking powder, 1 for 1.

SINGLE-ACTING TO DOUBLE-ACTING: 1 teaspoon single acting baking powder = 2/3 teaspoon double-acting baking powder

High-Altitude Adjustments for Double-Acting:
above 3000 ft. - reduce baking powder 1/8 teaspoon for every 1 teaspoon of baking powder in recipe; increase liquid 1 to 2 tablespoons per cup used
above 5000 ft. - reduce baking powder 1/8-1/4 teaspoon for every 1 teaspoon baking powder in recipe; increase liquid 2 to 4 tablespoons per cup used
above 7000 ft. - reduce baking powder 1/4 teaspoon for every 1 teaspoon baking powder in recipe; increase lquid 3 to 4 tablespoons per cup used

BAKING SODA Rule of Thumb: 1/4 teaspoon for every 1 cup of flour
There is no good substitute.
1/4 teaspoon baking soda = 1 teaspoon baking powder; must reconfigure the acidic ingredients (and sometimes the existing baking powder) in the recipe for the substitution to work.

YEAST
For 1 packed tablespoon cake yeast use 2 teaspoons instant yeast or 2 1/4 teaspoons active dry
Use 1.25 times the weight; or, for 1 teaspoon instant yeast, use about 1 1/4 teaspoons active dry yeast (or 1 1/2 teaspoons packed fresh yeast)
Use 0.67 times the weight; or, for 1 teaspoons active dry yeast, use 3/4 teaspoon instant yeast
Use 0.32 times the weight; or, for 1 packed Tablespoon (21 grams) fresh yeast, use 2 teaspoons instant yeast

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