Fats

PLEASE NOTE that when substituting fats, rules apply. 

The rule of thumb is to substitute one solid fat for another (ie: butter for shortening), and oil with another oil (vegetable oil or clarified butter for canola oil). That's because when a fat is solid, it acts differently in a baking recipe than a fat that's liquid.

SARAH SAYS: Melted butter cannot be substituted with a liquid fat because butter contains milk solids which set after the recipe has baked and cooled; oil doesn't. When a recipe calls for melted shortening, do not use vegetable oil, instead. Coconut butter in baking (good for people with nut allergies) and ice cream, but it is counted as a liquid fat or oil because it cannot be effectively used for the creaming method of mixing. Same with coconut oil.

If a recipe calls for butter, plastic (solid) fats such as butter, margarine or shortening with at least a 80% fat content work the best. Fats containing less than 80% in fat will adversely affect your recipe, such as lower calorie "spreads". Avoid their use.

BUTTER OR MARGARINE Stick Butter and Margarine Measurements: Measure butter by the indicators on its wrapper.
2 cups (4 sticks) = 1 pound or 16 ounces
1 cup (2 sticks) = 1/2 pound or 8 ounces
1/2 cup (1 stick) = 1/4 pound = 8 tablespoons = 4 ounces = 113 grams
1/3 cup = 5 tablespoons plus 1 teaspoon
1/4 cup (1/2 stick) = 4 tablespoons = 2 ounces
1/8 cup (1/4 stick) = 2 tablespoons = 1 ounce
1/8 stick = 1 tablespoon = 1/2 ounce

1 cup butter = 1 cup margarine = 1 cup regular or butter flavored shortening (packed)

1 pound unsalted butter = 1 pound salted butter (remove 1 teaspoon salt from the recipe)

CLARIFIED OR BROWNED BUTTER (BEURRE NOISETTE) = LIQUID FAT OR OIL
Clarified or browned butter will be only 75% the volume or weight of whole butter:
1 cup (2 sticks or 1/2 pound) butter = 3/4 cup clarified or browned butter (only if butter used is for melting, not creaming) = 3/4 cup vegetable oil
4 tablespoons butter = 3 tablespoons clarified or browned butter (only if butter used is for melting, not creaming) = 3 tablespoons vegetable oil

STICK BUTTER OR MARGARINE
Use Equal amounts of STICK (not tub) Vegan butter, well chilled for creaming mixing method

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